If the GTO wasn’t the first muscle car, then what was?

You know the name of first muscle car? It was the Pontiac GTO, of course. Right? Depends on who you ask.

Consider this: If muscle cars are defined as stand-alone American performance cars marketed as such with speed, track times, elapsed times, and other metrics used in advertising, then you’d have to go back almost 10 years before the GTO in order to find the first true muscle car. In 1955, the Chrysler C-300 was the first American car to be marketed by its parent company as a high-performance variant with track numbers to back it up. (The “C” stood for “coupe,” but with subsequent 300s getting a letter designation beginning with the 1956 300-B, the first 300 became known as the 300-A.)

That year, 1955, was a watershed year for the automobile. Car manufacturers were in a cycle of production for almost 10 years after the WWII-mandated moratorium on civilian manufacturing ended. Since that time, Detroit had upped engineering advancements with overhead-valve V-8 engines, reliable automatic transmissions, along with styling that was soon off the charts in terms of flamboyance. By ’55, almost all American cars featured completely new models, with performance becoming a source of advertising hyperbole.

Chrysler C-300 on the track
Contemporary advertising for the C-300 always had some reference to racing, including track photography, helmeted drivers, and a blur of speed. The Kelsey-Hayes wire spoke wheels were an option, mostly seen on Imperials, further blurring the line between the 300 being a Chrysler or a performance Imperial. Chrysler Archives
Chrysler 300 winning at Daytona Beach
Images like this one from Daytona Beach were distributed to newspapers and enthusiast magazines promoting the Chrysler 300 wins, further embedding the winning NASCAR and USAC accomplishments into the minds of consumers. The idea of “win on Sunday, sell on Monday” was beginning to cast a bigger halo over an entire company as an indication of superior engineering and performance. Chrysler Archives

The 1955 Chrysler Corporation offerings were the first year of design director Virgil Exner’s “forward look” styling, combined with all-new chassis and suspensions. Other than the engines, 1955 Chryslers were completely new, shedding their conservative reputation with dynamically engineered and styled cars. The “300” moniker stood for 300 horsepower—an industry first. That 300 hp came by means of two four-barrel carburetors, solid lifters, a hotter cam, and large dual exhaust. A beefed two-speed “Powerflite” automatic was all you could get in ’55, but the following year Chrysler added a three-speed manual transmission. Besides unique checkered flag badges, the distinctive hardtops were based on the lighter Windsor chassis, to which was added the distinctive Imperial front clip, resulting in a unique model for the 1955 Chrysler line.

Chrysler configured the 300s specifically for NASCAR, back when “stock car racing” mandated a stock, production car. The 300s reached a top speed of 127.6 mph in the flying mile—taking the top three wins, and 139.4 mph in 1956, again taking 1-2-3, with the punched-out 354-cubic-inch, 355-hp Hemi. Advertising for the 300 touted wins in both the NASCAR and AAA (later USAC) seasons in 1955. Lee Petty and Tim Flock, both NASCAR Hall of Fame recipients, piloted the Chryslers, with Flock crowned champion that year.

Chrysler 300 ad
More than any other method, with the successes at Daytona touted in their advertising, Chrysler was signaling speed and winning at the track as attributes worthy of pride in ownership. Interestingly, Hudson had very similar successes in NASCAR in the early-1950s, but never used its racing domination to sell Hornets in its advertising. FCA

Hudson had a similar NASCAR-winning presence in the early 1950s, but its mainstream advertising barely hinted at that racing dominance. The company never capitalized on Hudson’s dual-carb Hornet successes, and by the mid-1950s it had lost its NASCAR mojo and was soon gone from the automotive landscape.

With just over 1700 built in 1955, the 300’s appeal was limited in part due to the typical Chrysler buyer’s expectations. Featuring a firmer suspension and lopey cam, some 300s were traded in early for a tamer New Yorker or even Imperial. Remember, this was a completely new concept, and no one had ever purchased a new car with this level of “performance.”

Chrysler would continue the letter series Chryslers through 1965, replacing the tall-deck 392 Hemi with the wild-looking and performing 413-cu-in cross-ram wedge in 1959, before slowly taming the handling and performance. By 1962 you could buy a 300 without the hard edges, and without the letter. Chrysler 300s endured into the 1970s, with the limited-edition 1970 300-H (the “H” standing for specialty maker “Hurst”) reviving the spirit of earlier letter 300s. Slightly more than 500 were built, featuring 440-cu-in TNT engines, special fiberglass hoods, trunk lids, and stripes, with an Imperial interior.

Chrysler 300 print advertisement
Chrysler 300 rear 3/4 at a show
Thom Taylor

The 300 moniker was revived in the 1990s, and the V-6 FWD sedans picked up where Chrysler left off in 1965, with the 300M from 1998–2004, and then with the LX-platform sedans available today. Developed during Mercedes-Benz’s ownership, these later 300s share certain suspension, transmission, and other components with both S-Class and E-Class Mercedes.

Letter-series Chryslers have always been collectible as far back as the 1960s and harken back to the days when Detroit used the lightest sedans and coupes stuffed with the highest horsepower engines available, to carry the performance flag for their respective divisions. As passenger cars continue to take a back seat to SUVs, crossovers, and trucks, Chrysler’s fabled 300 may be one of the last American sedans manufactured.

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    My understanding is that the 49, 50 Oldsmobile was the early “muscle” car before Hudson, Chrysler. The Old’s had newly introduced the 303 cu in Kettering V8 into a lighter coupe and was fast for its time, it’s reputation still exists today.

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